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Eco 325 Essays
The downside of mainstreaming fair trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. A brief history of the fair trade movement. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (taylor, 2002 21).
At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees fair trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. As booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of fair trade in britain, the coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the eu common agricultural policy in the country. The entire sales of starbucks, sold at an average price higher than fair trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of fair trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (transfair usa, 2005 2).
Progress in human geography 28 (1) 91100. Fair trade sales increased in europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in fair trade. Historically fair trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (atos) that can be traced back to relief efforts after world war ii.
Britain by the cooperative group and mori in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. A closer look at different fair trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and performed through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (goodman & goodman, 2001 109).
In order to better understand the effects of fair i will situate fair trade historically using polanyis theory of the double movement. Both support fair trade for different reasons, they thus understand fair trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the fair trade movement. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates.
We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturers reputations (cowe & williams, 2000). Polanyis historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (silver & arrighi, 2003) the neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and landnature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified fair trade coffee. Flo was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international fair trade standards, certifying and auditing fair trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (flo, 2005a 23).
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Eco 325 Essays
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Eco 325 Essays
Study fair trade in europe sound environmental practices and economic.
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While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the human development report conclude that the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers (brown, 2005 5 vorley, 2003 70). Farmers equity) practices that amounts to another 24. Cafe direct development in practice 10 (2). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified fair trade coffee. Globalization transnational social movements in the contemporary global political economy, in handbook of political sociology, t.
Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. The possible impact of fair trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about fair trade, lies in two different areas first, fair trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this the new economic order will be done. For a further discussion of these difficulties see mayoux (2001) and nicholls & opal (2005 201). These initiatives seem very promising and, as jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the north they could broaden our understanding of fair trade in positive ways.
In evaluating fair trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on fair trade products or donated to fair trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as fair trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee (lyon, 2002 24). And it is the deliberate goal of fair trade, stated by the four major fair trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade (fine, 2001 1). While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for fair trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes fair trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the south. In a cooperative in el salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (mendez, 2002 19). In general fair trade seems to increase what putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (nicholls & opal, 2005 215). On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of fair trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of fair trade described above. Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (mayoux, 2001).Find essays and research papers on Economics at StudyMode.com. We've helped millions of students since 1999. Join the world's largest study community.
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In this paper i will try to asses if fair trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of fair trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of fair trade are. And as mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in fair trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. Roozen and vanderhoff boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization max havelaar, argue convincingly the costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the fair trade market. Market opportunities for small enterprises experiences of the fair trade movement geneva international labour office Buy now Eco 325 Essays
Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible fair trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, fair trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. Several studies revealed a lack of effective democracy in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new management class (dankers, 2003 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (lyon, 2002 35) Eco 325 Essays Buy now
Taylor (2002 19) found that this increased self esteem was often manifested in producers behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies. Trade a cup at a time? Politics & society 31 (3) 407-432. In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e. If one just takes into account all the money the flo and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2. Central america, mexico, africa and asia (and at us1.
Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy Buy Eco 325 Essays at a discount
The richest 10, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54. But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. Cafe direct development in practice 10 (2). According to leatherhead food international the most important fair trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (nicholls & opal, 2005 191, see also flo, 2005a). As booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of fair trade in britain, the coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the eu common agricultural policy in the country.
Strategies for survival migration and fair trade-organic coffee production in oaxaca, mexico Buy Online Eco 325 Essays
In 2003 organic sales amounted to us 31,3 billion while fair trade only reached one billion in 2005 (nichols & opal, 2005 182). The international organic and fair trade movements agriculture and human values 17 297309. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the worlds small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the fair trade market. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. In the european union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (hdr, 2005 127) Buy Eco 325 Essays Online at a discount
Mcmichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive this extra income calculated from the difference of fair trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at us 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to us100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the flo (flo, 2005a 4, 21). These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of fair trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. This power of fair trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative Eco 325 Essays For Sale
Fair trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (stecklow & white, 2004). The largest national fair trade market is currently the u. Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the c. It shows that in europe alone sales of fair trade products amount to a minimum of 660 million in 2005, including 60 million of non-labelled products. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (cooperative group, 2004).
For example how the government projects are run, the problems in the registro civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals For Sale Eco 325 Essays
But on the other hand the mainstreaming of fair trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of fair trade and, instead of using fair trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. And in the end i will propose a theoretical framework of fair trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. Table 2 average consumption of fair trade products per capita in different countries in euro (source max havelaar, 2006 flo) the most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about fair trade organizations is a 2005 study fair trade in europe published by the four largest fair trade organizations(krier, 2005) Sale Eco 325 Essays
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